Children are not the same as adults. Schools are not the same as office buildings.

CHPS supports an evidence-based approach to the design, construction, and operation of school buildings, and we support in partnership or spirit any study that seeks to better understand the connection between the physical environment and the wellbeing of students, teachers, and school administrators. The Knowledge Library is a clearinghouse of studies, reports, and other resources that will help you learn about this important connection.

Training

EPA On-Demand Webinars for IAQ

https://www.epa.gov/iaq-schools/ondemand-training-webinars

The web-based training in the IAQ Master Class Professional Training Webinar Series and IAQ Knowledge-to-Action Professional Training Webinar Series provide school district staff across the country with the knowledge needed to start, improve or sustain an IAQ management program within their school or school district. Each pre-recorded webinar features technical experts, industry leaders and model school districts, and is followed by a 30-minute mentoring question and answer session.

EPA Webinar on Energy Efficiency & Health

Getting Started with Energy Savings + Health: Integrating Energy Efficiency, Health & Safety

The focus of his YouTube-based webinar is to describe the value of protecting indoor quality while increasing energy efficiency for students and staff. Key issues include guidance for implementation, preventive maintenance, and best practices. The 1-hour and 20-minute webinar combines slides with discussion from technical expert speakers and presentation of a model school district as an example. A question and answer session follows the webinar. 

Studies & Reports

USA Research

2014 Study on Elementary Student Performance Relative to Surrounding "Greenness" of the School

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195655/ - link goes to the abstract

This study investigated the association between “greenness” of the area surrounding a Massachusetts public elementary school and the academic achievement of the school’s student body, based on standardized tests with an ecological setting. Results indicated a consistently positive significant association between the greenness of the school and school-wide performance on both English and Math tests, even after adjustment for socio-economic factors and urban residency.

An assessment of indoor environmental quality in schools and its association with health and performance. Building and Environment. (2015) 1-6.  

A school district composed of 70 schools in the Southwestern United States engaged in research over two academic years to examine the associations between different indoor environmental quality (IEQ) indicators and student performance. Researchers collected data on absenteeism and health as a baseline   Classroom ventilation rate, temperature, and hygiene of high contact surfaces appear to be important (IEQ ) parameters, and potentially related to student health and/or performance.

Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A Prospective Study in California Elementary Schools Indoor Air. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. LBNL Paper LBNL-6259E. Retrieved from: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5633c9d1

Study investigated relationships between inadequate classroom ventilation rates (VRs) with increased illness absence (IA) in 162 third through fifth grade classrooms over a two-year period.  Classrooms were located in three school districts in varying parts of the state: South Coast of Southern California, San Francisco Bay Area and the Central Valley. Evidence suggests that increasing VRs would decrease absenteeism due to illness; thereby significantly increasing attendance-linked school funding with minimal increased costs.

EPA Research Grants for Healthy Schools

https://www.epa.gov/research-grants/healthy-schools-research-grants - main page

Healthy Schools STAR Research grants improve the understanding of the relationship between environmental factors in K-12 educational facilities and the safety, health and academic performance of children, and the effectiveness of teachers and staff. Key components of each grant are research, community engagement and community capacity building.

https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/recipients.display/rfa_id/568/records_per_page/ALL - 2015 grantees with links to reports and articles

Experimental and numerical research to assess indoor environment quality and schoolwork performance in university classrooms. Building and Environment 93 (2015) 141e154.

The primary goal of this study is to evaluate thermal comfort based on the predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD) indices using subjective and experimental measurements in two air-conditioned classrooms at a university. The air-exchange rate in each classroom is assured by natural ventilation. The secondary research goal of this paper is to develop a prediction model of the academic performance during the cooling season. Application of this model indicates that the indoor environmental conditions can strongly affect student performance.

Green Schools Attributes for Health & Learning, funded by Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, 2006

https://www.nap.edu/catalog/11756/green-schools-attributes-for-health-and-learning

National Research Council (NRC) reviewed and assessed the health and productivity benefits of green schools. This assessment considers various factors: analysis of the complexity of making such assessments, potential human health and performance benefits of improvements in the building envelope, indoor air quality, lighting, and acoustical quality; assessment of the overall building condition; student achievement; research considerations; and analysis of and recommendations for planning and maintaining green schools.

Harvard University T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Healthy Buildings Program

https://schools.forhealth.org/ - ongoing initiative covering K-12 schools, multiple studies

Foundations for Student Success: How School Buildings Influence Student Health, Thinking and Performance - quick link to 2017 report

Schools for Health Describes how the school building influences the student's health, thinking and performance. The report incorporates findings from over 200 research studies and considers over 70 health outcomes related to school buildings.  Complemented by various research articles linking student health and student thinking with student performance.

Indoor Air Quality and Academic Performance. Tess M. Stafford. December 19, 2013.

This research studied the efforts of indoor air quality on most schools in one school district in Texas. Each school completed air quality renovations prior to the beginning of the research study. Although the study involved several complex factors, the evidence indicated that improving air quality in a classroom was more cost effective to improve student outcomes than decreasing class size.

Introducing an environmental assessment and intervention program in inner-city schools. Allergy Clinical Immunology. 2014 December; 134(6): 1232–1237. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.09.010.  Introducing an environmental assessment and intervention program in inner-city schools. Retrieved at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4261007/pdf/nihms-629222.pdf

This review summarizes the importance and common challenges of school-based environmental assessment and intervention studies linked to health effects. It focuses on the key components of study development and the challenges and benefits to implementation. 

Indoor Environmental Quality of Classrooms and Student Outcomes: A Path Analysis Approach. SeonMi Choi, PhD. Researcher, Interior Design, College of Design. University of Minnesota. Journal of Learning Spaces, Vol. 2, No 2 (2013).

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in a set of university classrooms and students’ outcomes. The researcher collected data from more than 600 students. Study criteria included thermal conditions, indoor air quality, acoustic conditions, lighting conditions, furnishings, aesthetics, technology, and view conditions. Evidence suggested positive student outcomes when specific design factors are included in university classrooms. Results of the study provided suggestions for additional research.

The Impact of School Infrastructure on Learning: A Synthesis of the Evidence, World Bank, 2019

http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/853821543501252792/The-Impact-of-School-Infrastructure-on-Learning-A-Synthesis-of-the-Evidence

This report reviews current research studies on how school infrastructure affects children’s learning outcomes and to identify key parameters that can inform the design, implementation, and supervision of future educational infrastructure projects. The narrative suggests a series of questions to be answered in order to create an optimal learning environment. Key findings from studies of international practice are a first step towards identifying optimal solutions to the issues raised by these questions and maximizing the benefits of school infrastructure.

Towards Healthy Schools, Healthy Schools Network, 2016

http://www.healthyschools.org/data/files/TowardsHealthySchools-Risks.pdf

All states require children to attend school, but no state ensures that those schools are environmentally safe and healthy. “Towards Healthy Schools: Reducing Risks to Children” is the fourth in a series of triennial state of the states’ reports from Healthy Schools Network and its partners in the Coalition for Healthier Schools, dating from 2006. This report features published media reports on environmental conditions from every state in the country. This disturbing summary highlights stories across the country teachers, parents, and guardians, and the children themselves, face numerous and serious unexamined and unaddressed risks to health and learning, rarely acknowledged by public agencies.

International Research

Australia

School children’s personal exposure to ultrafine particles in the urban environment. Environmental Science & Technology (including News & Research. Notes), Mazaheri, Mandana, et al. (2014). 48(1), pp. 113-120.

This research investigates the opportunities for a child’s exposure to ultrafine particulates in school, home and in the community and its effects on the body. Children in this study kept an activity diary that included more than 90 unique activities that were classified into categories for evaluation.  

Finland

Indoor Environmental Quality in Finnish Elementary Schools and Its Effects on Students’ Health and Learning. Richard Shaughnessy, et al.

This research assessment consisted of a total of 107 sixth grade classrooms from 59 schools in Southern Finland. A key finding was a positive and significant correlation between A positive significant correlation was observed between mean temperature and students’ poor health.